inorganic chemistry

# Trick to find the shape and hybridization of molecules

## Hybridization tricks :-

The very important topic of the basics chemistry is

**Hybridization.**In the article, you will see about some introduction and methods to find out the**Hybridization of molecules**as well as**Shape/geometry of molecules.**## Hybridization :-

**Hybridization**is the concept of**intermixing**of the orbitals of an atom having nearly same energy to give exactly equivalent orbitals with**same energy**, identical shapes and**symmetrical orientation in space.**The New equivalent orbitals formed are known as the

**hybrid orbitals**(or)**Hybridized orbitals**. Hybrid orbitals have properties entirely different from the properties of original orbitals from which they have been obtained.#### Hybridization Trick :-

## How to calculate (or) Predict the type of the hybridization of Molecule or Ion :-

**Step – 1:-**

Add the Number of

**Valence Electrons**of all the atoms present in the Given molecules/ion**Step – 2:-**

In the case of a

**Cation**(Positively charged), subtract the number of electrons equal to the charge on the cation and in case of an**anion**(negatively charged), add a number of electrons equal to the Charge on the anion**Step – 3:-**

**(i)**If the results obtained in

**step 2 Equal (or) less than 8**, divide it by 2 and find the sum of the quotient and remainder

**(ii)**If the results obtained in

**step 2**lies between

**9 and 56**, divide it by 8 and find the first quotient (Q1). Divide the remainder R1 (if any) by 2 and find the Second quotient (Q2).add all the quotient and the final remainder R2

If no remainder means, that’s no problem

Let the final result obtained in (i) (or) (ii) Be

**X.**The type of Hybridization is decided by the value of X as follows**Value Of X Type of Hybridization**

**2**

**–**

**sp**

3 – sp²

4 – sp³

5 – sp³d

6 – sp³d²

7 – sp³d³

**Example:-**

To find out the Hybridization of

**Becl2 :-**Total valence electrons = 2+(7*2) = 16

16/8 = 2(Q1) + Zero(R1)

**X = 2**

**Hybridization of this molecule = sp**

### Formula to predict the Hybridization:-

The proper way to find out the Hybridization of the molecules (or) ion is using the formula method is best. For this method, users must have an idea about

• Number Of valence electrons in the molecule

• Monovalent and divalent atoms in the molecule

•Charges

By knowing the above 3 Criteria, you can simply figure out the Hybridization of given molecules

**Formula = 1/2 ( V+M-C+A)**

**Of Hybridization**

Where,

**V =**Number of

**Valence electron of the central atom**

**M =**Number of

**monovalent atoms**

**C =**subtract the charges of

**Cation**

**A =**Add the charges of

**Anion**

By using the above formula (or) hybridization trick you can easily

find out the

**Hybridization**of molecules.Hybridization is also used to determine the

**Shape**or**Geometry of the molecules**or ions## The shape of Molecules:-

Most of the chemistry Question paper contains at least

**one shape of molecules question**. But it is very simple topic to answer and all the things you know must is• Number of bond formed by every atom

(Eg)

(i)

**Oxygen**forms a**double bond**with other atoms (ii)

**Fluorine**forms a**single bond**with other atoms• lone pair and bond pair

(i) The valence electrons involved in the bonding is known as

**Bond pair.****(ii) The Valence electrons do not involve in the bonding is known as the**

**Lone pair.**

*You can also predict the shape from the*HybridiZation of molecules:-

**Shape**

**Type of Hybridization**

**Linear**

**–**

**sp**

Bent (or) V – sp²

Tetrahedral – sp³

Square planer – dsp²

Trigonal bipyramidal – sp³d

Octahedral – sp³d² Pentagonal bipyramidal – sp³d³

I hope this article helps you a lot, you use it in on your exams.

Hope you liked it.

For an explanation of basic terms as Valence electrons, Monovalent, Divalent bond order. Feel free to comment below.

Nice article very useful