inorganic chemistry

Trick to find the shape and hybridization of molecules

Hybridization tricks :-

The very important topic of the basics chemistry is Hybridization. In the article, you will see about some introduction and methods to find out the Hybridization of molecules as well as Shape/geometry of molecules.

Hybridization :-

Hybridization is the concept of intermixing of the orbitals of an atom having nearly same energy to give exactly equivalent orbitals with same energy, identical shapes and symmetrical orientation in space.
The New equivalent orbitals formed are known as the hybrid orbitals (or) Hybridized orbitals. Hybrid orbitals have properties entirely different from the properties of original orbitals from which they have been obtained.

Hybridization Trick  :-

How to calculate (or) Predict the type of the hybridization of Molecule or Ion :-

hybridization tricks,
Step – 1:-
Add the Number of Valence Electrons of all the atoms present in the Given molecules/ion
Step – 2:-
In the case of a Cation (Positively charged), subtract the number of electrons equal to the charge on the cation and in case of an anion(negatively charged), add a number of electrons equal to the Charge on the anion
Step – 3:-
(i) If the results obtained in step 2 Equal (or) less than 8, divide it by 2 and find the sum of the quotient and remainder
(ii) If the results obtained in step 2 lies between 9 and 56, divide it by 8 and find the first quotient (Q1). Divide the remainder R1 (if any) by 2 and find the Second quotient (Q2).add all the quotient and the final remainder R2
If no remainder means, that’s no problem
Let the final result obtained in (i) (or) (ii) Be X. The type of Hybridization is decided by the value of X as follows
Value Of X              Type of Hybridization
 
    2                                          sp
    3                    –                      sp²
    4                    –                      sp³
    5                    –                      sp³d
    6                    –                      sp³d²
    7                    –                      sp³d³
Example:-
To find out the Hybridization of Becl2 :-
Total valence electrons = 2+(7*2) = 16
16/8 = 2(Q1) + Zero(R1)
X = 2
Hybridization of this molecule  = sp
 
 

 Formula to predict the Hybridization:-

The proper way to find out the Hybridization of the molecules (or) ion is using the formula method is best. For this method, users must have an idea about
• Number Of valence electrons in the molecule
• Monovalent and divalent atoms in the molecule
•Charges
By knowing the above 3 Criteria, you can simply figure out the Hybridization of given molecules
Formula                   =           1/2 ( V+M-C+A)
Of Hybridization                   
 
Where,
     V =       Number of Valence electron of the central atom
    M =       Number of monovalent atoms
    C =        subtract the charges of Cation
    A =        Add the charges of Anion
 
By using the above formula  (or) hybridization trick  you can easily
find out the Hybridization of molecules.
Hybridization is also used to determine the Shape or Geometry of the molecules or ions

The shape of Molecules:-

Square planer

Most of the chemistry Question paper contains at least one shape of molecules question. But it is very simple topic to answer and all the things you know must is
• Number of bond formed by every atom
(Eg)
      (i) Oxygen forms a double bond with other atoms
     (ii) Fluorine forms a single bond with other atoms
•  lone pair and bond pair
   (i) The valence electrons involved in the bonding is known as Bond pair.
   (ii) The Valence electrons do not involve in the bonding is known as the Lone pair.
 

 

 

 
You can also predict the shape from the HybridiZation of molecules:-
 
 
 Shape                       Type of Hybridization
 
 Linear                               –            sp
 Bent (or) V                       –                 sp²
Tetrahedral                       –             sp³
Square planer                   –          dsp²
Trigonal bipyramidal     –            sp³d
 Octahedral                       –       sp³d²  Pentagonal bipyramidal  –       sp³d³

Square Pyramidal

 
I hope this article helps you a lot, you use it in on your exams.

Hope you liked it.

For an explanation of basic terms as Valence electrons, Monovalent, Divalent bond order. Feel free to comment below.

 

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